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A Quick Overview of Wireline Logging History

Wirelines are electrical cables that are used to lower tools and data into a hole or well.  Wireline logging, most commonly used by the oil and gas industries, is used by the operators to see about the conditions of a wellbore. A wellbore is the hole that forms the actual well and aids in the exploration and discovery of natural resources that can be found beneath the earth’s surface. The cables are usually braided and measure the formation properties in a well through electrical wires.  Most wireline logging companies provide services like formation analysis, resistivity, porosity, and temperature.

Formation analysis is generally used to determine the ability a borehole has to produce petroleum.  The analysis answers two questions: What are the lower limits for porosity, and do any of the formations in the well exceed these lower limits.  The analysis can be done during the drilling and provides real-time measurements of the rock formations and also checks the stability of the wellbore.

One of the main objectives during logging is to locate the hydrocarbons in a well.  Geoscientists and engineers use these logging tools and technology to evaluate a well’s performance.  They also use this information to develop hydrocarbon production plans.

In 1912 two brothers, Conrad and Marcel Schlumberger, came up with the idea to use electrical measurements to map out subsurface rocks.  The sensors measure the different properties of the rocks and this data is then transmitted and logged. Conrad was a mining engineer and came up with electrical conductivity, which led to electrical-surface measuring systems that are used to aid in mineral exploration.  Schlumberger Ltd. was founded by the brothers in 1926 and their discoveries led to many new advancements in logging.  Their company remains an important oil-service company to this day.

The geological advantages of wireline logging, along with providing continuous data, supplements geologists’ geophysical surveys.  It is a key element to environmental protection and aids in the location of new wells.

As technology advances, new ideas and machines are being introduced to aid in the productivity and efficiency of mining and logging.  Wireline logging is an important branch of geophysics.  Geophysics is the study of the earth and they use gravity, magnetic, and electrical methods to study what lies beneath the earth’s surface.  Wireline drilling aids companies in making future production decisions, based on their findings, to ensure a safe environment as well as maintaining equipment.

Casing Inspection Specialist

Oil & Gas Casing Inspection

Casing inspection is an important practice to minimize the failure rate. Reducing failure rate is important because failure of a casing can be a danger to people and the environment; as well a can be more costly to repair than preventative maintenance. Types of casing failure inspective tools are: Deformation and/or fractures caused by pressure and temperature, Corrosion due to acids and natural wear and tear.

The following four types of casing inspection tools are about to give data and monitor for potential casing failure:

  • Cased-Hole calipers lie inside the bore hole and have caliper fingers that are spring loaded to apply push against the internal circumference of the casing. The Caliper fingers will send measurements of the amount of spring release it takes to retain that same rate of pressure against the internal casing, it will send this measurement many times a minute, alerting any change in the thickness of the walls. The downfalls of this tool is that the constant pressure on the casing wall from the caliper fingers, can cause erosion and damage in itself and therefore the pressure levels the springs of the fingers is initially set at is of high importance.
  • Flux-Leakage tools that use an electromagnetic field to monitor the casing. An electromagnet is fitted inside the casing, the fluctuation of the electromagnetic field is able to permeate through the casing. Then it is analyzed for any changes. Changes in the strength of the electromagnetic field leaking through the casing gives information about thinning of the walls of the casing due to metal loss, corrosion or damage.
  • Electromagnetic Phase – shift tools that use an alternating magnetic field transmitter coil which communicated with a receiver coil, sending the electromagnetic signal back and forth through the casing allows this tool to monitor the circumference of the casing. Monitoring the circumference of the casing makes it possible to judge if there is any metal loss or corrosion causing a change in the thickness of the casing. However this method has its limitations, as it only monitors about a foot of the casing at a time it is far less efficient than other methods. Therefore, this method is usually used to find areas of large damage and/or corrosion and less effective at finding smaller intricate damage.
  • Ultrasonic tools send ultrasonic waves down the length of the casings and based on echo and travel time they are able to give information that can somewhat draw a picture of the casing and be analyzed to show the thickness of the casing. This tool is able to communicate any damage or metal loss as well as send information about buildup on the casing. In conclusion, casing inspection tools are a necessity to prevent casing failure and protect people, environment and bottom line cost of running. These tools allow for monitoring and inspecting casing to make sure that their integrity is strong and their risk of failure is as low as possible.
pshutdown

The Process of a Plant Shutdown in 2016

A plant shutdown is common to be happened several times during the company’s lifetime, it would be for scheduled maintenance, replacement of parts, modification or expansion. No matter what the reason is, the main challenge is to stick with the most appropriate safety standards and keep downtime to a minimum. If the company wants to achieve that goal, then all of logistical processes, which is consist of the lifting, transport, installation and removal of many components, are all the important factors and has interdependent role. However, many refineries were not properly planned with plant shutdown procedure. Just to add more into shutdown complexity, the fact that in this kind of projects, multiple parties are demanded to work almost simultaneously at the same site. With these facts in mind, the new and comprehensive approaches should be taken into account, not just the ways to move the different components, but also the safety procedure and coordination of activities which will be carried out each by different subcontractors.

Basically there are five phases of plant shutdown:

plant-shutdown-process

1. Planning

In this phase, the internal team of the refinery, the main contractor hired for the project, and various engineering department, both internal and external, will determine the range of work that needs to be done, the pre-shutdown activities, and general logistics. You will need a lot of human resources to get the job done. then , the key officers will negotiate the schedule. The prime contractor would propose the time required to carry out the project without taking toll on the resources and result in critical tasks to be rushed.

2. Coordination

In this stage, the team would determine the order of things that should be done, the responsibility of each unit, and more detailed work flow. This involves the entire shutdown team: internal staff (maintenance, engineering, facility management, and procurement), external engineers, contractors, and vendors. This is the most crucial and longest phase. In this phase, the team would discuss and decide on which equipment and systems will be both removed from and returned to service.

3. Procurement

More details to the procurement of equipment and materials, this phase involves contracts bidding or negotiation with all important consultants, contractors, and vendors. In this phase, you will be the main decision maker, project management, facilities, and the procurement or purchasing department. This process could take several weeks depending on the flexibility of the personnels and outsources involved. If you make agreement with foreign contractors, make sure that you have the copy in their native language, or a language that is understandable by both parties to make sure there will be no misconception once the project has started.

4. Execution

Just as the name states, this is when the process commencing. All procedure will be put in place including new and old equipments. The time it takes would be depending on the range of work and the schedule that was negotiated with the higher ups.

5. Return to Service

All the process is done and you will start the refinery anew. Several tests should be conducted to ensure the performance of the machines, including the environmental monitoring and similar. Once reliable test results are received, the refinery will be ready for use.

openhole

Open Hole Wireline Logging

Open hole wireline logging is very important for oil drilling, and that is very important so that people can set up the wells that they are working on. There are some ways to make the well as safe as possible, and you need to be sure that you have thought really hard about how you are going to be able to use the logging system to make the system safe. This means that you will be able to use the logging to figure out what is going on with the well.

The logging is going to help you make sure that you know where the well is going to sit, and it is going to tell you the depth and size of the well. You need to know this information so that there is no confusion for the future, and you also need to make sure that you are going to be able to get the well on line as soon as you can.

You also need to make sure that you keep doing the logging for as long as possible so that you have information on the well that is current. Someone who is not taking information on the well is going to have a hard time figuring out what is going on with the well. You need to have a clear safety record for the site, and you will be able to keep track of that record so that there is no problem in the future. You can show that you did the logging, and you can show that it was done for the good of everyone on the crew. You will be able to get the exact results you need for the well, and you will be able to prove that your well is up the safety standards of the industry.

wireline-logging

Wireline Companies offer exceptional services to oil and gas industry

Wireline companies offer services that are very useful for the oil and gas industry. Basically, wireline logging is a sophisticated cabling technology. It entails sending the probing equipment down into the oil well or other deep locations as desired with the help of cables. By sending such equipment down, many things which are not possible for human beings to do in person, can be done thanks to the equipment. The electrical cable or the wireline sent below constantly sends information up, which is interpreted with the help of software.

Wireline is used in different stages in the oil industry. For example in oil exploration, it becomes necessary to send sophisticated electrical equipment down, and collect soil readings. Based on the soil readings it is possible to analyze how much further it would be necessary to drill so as to reach the oil. Once the oil has been located, there are many other functions for which wireline technology is used such as –

  • Reservoir monitoring
  • Production logging
  • Well perforation
  • Well maintenance and repairs
  • Coil tubing
  • Tubing of drill pipe
  • Recovery of pipe
  • Cleaning of well
  • Setting plugs

Both out of casing and inside casing wireline services are used by the oil and gas industry.

Oil may be found at sea or on land, but it is always underground. Oil needs to be extracted and stored as well. The storage of oil is another function for which wireline services may be needed. This is because crude oil requires underground salt mines to be stored. Wireline services are needed to keep salt out of such oil storing chambers, caverns, or wells, as the case may be. Therefore, wireline services indicate whether the salt from the surroundings is moving into the cavern. Such storage is a complex process as there is always the possibility of the storage room collapsing.

Wireline services are also used for storing hydrocarbons, which are again stored underground. These services differ slightly because it is necessary to design and construct such underground storage tanks. Then again, the question of operation and logging needs to be done, for which wireline services are needed. Any decommissioning or abandoning also needs to be done without letting the ground sink. Other factors, such as pollution and water contamination, also need to be considered while managing such storage facilities. Therefore, wireline services play a crucial role in the engineering activity associated with hydrocarbon storage, and its transportation.

Geologists responsible for locating oil, and the engineers responsible for its extraction and storage, require wireline services for maintenance too. The rapid depletion of the stored hydrocarbons or oil needs to be avoided many times as the balance in pressure internally and externally needs to be maintained. Pressure from the surroundings can affect the storage of oil well. Based on the extrapolation and analysis of data received from remote locations deep inside earth, engineers decide how much casing is needed and the risks in setting up oil or hydrocarbon storage facilities in the selected location. Such assessment also enables these professionals to establish the necessary controls and management systems, apart from setting up the required procedures, plans, and drills for emergencies, if any. Effectively, wireline services combine electrical and electronic tools to collect information from remote and inaccessible locations, so that it is possible to come up with oil extraction and storage strategies.